Thinning paint is very simple and can make all the difference in the final result of your project. If you’ve begun a project where the paint ended up thick, chunky, clumpy, or simply unusable, you know the frustration of not having the perfect paint consistency.
How can I thin paint?
You can easily thin paint with water, medium, acetone, turpentine, flow-aid, or paint-thinner. The ratio you should utilize is a 4:1 ratio of paint to thinning-agent, adding small amounts and gradually thinning until the desired effect is achieved. You should always have a higher concentration of paint than you have of paint-thinner to avoid it becoming runny or overly-diluted.
Not having the right paint consistency will cause your paint to dry with air pockets, bubbles, easily chip away or add an unwanted texture to your project. Don’t waste anymore paint by lopping it on there thickly or thinning it down too much. Before you start on your next project, use this guide to understand the best products, methods, and techniques for paint thinning!
How Can I Thin Paint?
The ways in which you can thin your paint are:
As stated, you will use a ratio of 4:1, but we recommend you start with less than you think you may need. The chemical properties in the paint you are working with, the product you are using to thin, as well as the desired effect all, affect the exact ratio.
Also, the manufacturer might recommend something different for their product, so check the label. You can easily overwhelm your paint’s properties and flood it with too much thinner.
Less is usually more so begin with a drop or two of your selected paint-thinner, then add in drop-increments from there.
The Steps to Thin Your Paint
The process goes as follows:
- Take your selected thinner and add 1-3 drops of it to your paint.
- Mix the paint and thinner together thoroughly so that you have an even paint consistency. Mix it with a palette knife or the non-brush end of your paintbrush.
- If it’s still too thick and chunky in texture, add a couple more drops steadily and mix until you have the desired effect.
- After you’ve added in small increments of your selected paint thinner, you will test it on a separate sheet/material than your project.
- Have a paper towel to blot the brush in case there is any residual water that would leave drip marks or small puddles on your painting.
- Once you have the desired effect in the first few experiments on a separate sheet, use your loaded brush on the actual project you are working on.
The real virtue here will be patience and experimenting with it until you understand the process.
It is a very hands-on method that may take a few rounds of practice before you master it, so be patient with yourself. We will link some visual aid videos to more visual-learners in the conclusion of this article.
Why Should I Thin my Paint?
You thin your paint because you want a smoother finish and perfectly straight lines. It also makes your paints go further–sometimes doubling or tripling the number of uses you have compared to painting without paint-thinner.
Each product will be different, so you’ll need to understand the product it is meant for, the material it is compatible with, and the effect or finish that you’re seeking.
Thinning your paint allows an even brushstroke and non-bumpy finish.
If you do not thin your paint, some of the side effects may be:
- Chunky paint
- Unwanted texture
- Gaps in your paint lines (Important for canvas painters to understand – the paint will sit on top of the canvas and ride along the top of the fabric without sinking in-between the woven dips. To have a perfectly straight line on a painter’s canvas, you need water or paint thinner to reach the lower layers of the woven canvas.
How Thin Should I Make My Paint?
The fine balance with thinning paint is to get your brushstrokes more precise and even without over-thinning the paint. If you over-thin your paint, you will have a runny mess of water drops that will expand unwarrantedly around your canvas or project.
You are looking for a smooth consistency that will not leave bumps or texture marks, and you also are seeking less resistance as you brush it across the surface.
If it skids along or isn’t adhering to the material well, your paint may require more paint-thinner to adhere in a smoother context.
Some side effects of thinning your paint may be:
- Your paint color will be more transparent and opaque
- Your paint will be easier to control
- Thinning your paint will have the side-effect of making it more transparent, which may require more layers than a single coat, but the final effect will be much more consistent, smooth, and evenly-coated product.
It may take more layers to build up the depth of that color, but the thinner paint will aid in your brush control and texture.
If You Make Your Paint Too Thin
Some of the side effects and indications that you’ve watered down your paint too much are if:
- Your painting ends up watery or with thick drops
- It dries with drop marks expanding the paint and leaving empty white gaps on the canvas
- Your colors bleed more, run more, or look washy
- You end up with a watercolor painting unintentionally
Types of Paints & Product Recommendations
The main paint types and best-suited product (besides water) for each will be:
- Oil Paint:
- Acrylic Paint:
- Airbrush Paint: Use Airbrush Thinner. Then use Acrylic paint and thin them down to be airbrush paints. Due to viscosity, if the paint is too thick, it will come out gloppy or not come out at all from being too thick. You thin it to atomize and spread out, easily passing through the airbrushing tube.
- Strong Varnishes and Stained Paints: Sunnyside Mineral Spirits Paint Thinner
- Latex Paint: Wagner Paint Easy Latex Conditioner
- House Paint: Water will be best for this – Use ½ cup of water to every gallon of paint and mix together thoroughly in a bucket to be sure consistency is achieved. You can test its quality by running the paint through a funnel. If it doesn’t move or flow freely, it may need another ½ gallon of water added until the desired effect is achieved.
The takeaway here should be to start small and not overcommit to too much paint thinner. You can always add more, but if you’ve already overdone it, there is not taking the thinner out and restoring that paint to its normal consistency.
You may waste a bit of paint to learn the balance but experiment a bit and give yourself room to make those mistakes.
Here are a few visual guides so you can see the process in action:
- How to Thin Paint for Beginners
- WHTV Tip of The Day- Thinning Your Paints
- How to Thin Your Paint for Miniatures
- Thinning Your Airbrush Paints
- Thin Your Paints Like a Pro
Another perk of starting-small is that your work may end up with a glaze or water-color effect that can be quite beautiful.
Remember, add the paint thinner little-by-little, and you should be good!